Causation Between Health and Income: A Need to Panic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


This article tests whether health has improved income or income has improved health in OECD countries over the last 50 years. A theoretical framework for both directions of causation is first outlined. A panel time-series approach is then taken and, unlike similar work, common shocks across countries (‘cross-sectional dependence’) are taken into account in the analysis using the PANIC (Panel Analysis of Non-stationarity in Idiosyncratic and Common components) approach of Bai and Ng. It is found that better health improves income more generally while income in turn also affects health. This finding is shown to be robust to dynamic specification.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)583-601
Number of pages19
JournalEmpirical Economics
Issue number2
Early online date07 Jan 2012
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Mathematics (miscellaneous)
  • Statistics and Probability


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