Biopolymers are materials synthesised or derived from natural sources, such as plants, animals, microorganisms or any other living organism. The use of these polymers has grown significantly in recent years as industry shifts away from unsustainable fossil fuel resources and looks towards a softer and more sustainable environmental approach. This review article covers the main classes of biopolymers: Polysaccharides, proteins, microbial-derived and lignin. In addition, an overview of the leading biomedical applications of biopolymers is also provided, which includes tissue engineering, medical implants, wound dressings, and the delivery of bioactive molecules. The future clinical applications of biopolymers are vast, due to their inherent biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogenicity. All properties which their synthetic counterparts do not share.