Characterisation of Passive Intermodulation in Passive RF Devices with X-parameter

Dmitry S. Kozlov, Alexey P. Shitvov, Alexander G. Schuchinsky

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

7 Citations (Scopus)
606 Downloads (Pure)


A novel approach to the modelling of passive intermodulation (PIM) generation in passive components with distributed weak nonlinearities is outlined. Based upon the formalism of X-parameters, it provides a unified framework for co-design of antenna beamforming networks, filters, combiners, phase shifters and other passive and active devices containing nonlinearities at RF front-end. The effects of discontinuities and complex circuit layouts can be efficiently evaluated with the aid of the equivalent networks of the canonical nonlinear elements. The main concepts are illustrated by examples of numerical simulations of PIM generation in the transmission lines and comparison with the measurement results.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication 2014 Loughborough Antennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC)
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Number of pages4
ISBN (Electronic)9781479936625
Publication statusPublished - 10 Nov 2014
EventAntennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC) - Loughborough, United Kingdom
Duration: 10 Nov 201411 Nov 2014


ConferenceAntennas and Propagation Conference (LAPC)
CountryUnited Kingdom


  • distributed nonlinearity
  • intermodulation distortion
  • passive intermodulation (PIM)
  • X-parameters

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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