Nickel germanide Schottky contacts, formed by rapid thermal annealing of thin nickel films, have been characterized on n-type germanium wafers for a range of RTA temperatures. The highest Schottky barrier heights for electrons (= 0.6-0.7 eV) were obtained for RTA temperatures of approximately 300°C. For this RTA schedule, the corresponding barrier height for holes is close to zero, ideal for Schottky contacted p-channel germanium MOSFETs. When the RTA temperature was increased to 400oC, a dramatic reduction in electron barrier height (< 0.1 eV) was observed. This RTA schedule, therefore, appears ideal for ohmic source/drain contacts to n channel germanium MOSFETs. From sheet resistance measurements and XRD characterization, nickel germanide formation was found to occur at 300oC and above. The NiGe phase was dominant for RTA temperatures up to at least 435oC.
Gajula, D. R., McNeill, D., Baine, P., Fleming, P., Duffy, R., & Armstrong, B. M. (2011). Characterization of Nickel Germanide Schottky Contacts for the Fabrication of Germanium p-channel MOSFETs. ECS Transactions, 35(3), 521-527. https://doi.org/10.1149/1.3569943