Chlorostannate(II) Ionic Liquids: Speciation, Lewis Acidity, and Oxidative Stability

Matthew Currie, Julien Estager, Peter Licence, Shuang Men, Peter Nockemann, Kenneth R. Seddon, Malgorzata Swadzba-Kwasny, Cecile Terrade

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55 Citations (Scopus)


The anionic speciation of chlorostannate(II) ionic liquids, prepared by mixing 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and tin(II) chloride in various molar ratios, chi(SnCl2), was investigated in both solid and liquid states. The room temperature ionic liquids were investigated by Sn-119 NMR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and viscometry. Crystalline samples were studied using Raman spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and differential scanning calorimetry. Both liquid and solid systems (crystallized from the melt) contained [SnCl3](-) in equilibrium with Cl- when chi(SnCl2) < 0.50, [SnCl3](-) in equilibrium with [Sn2Cl5](-) when chi(SnCl2) > 0.50, and only [SnCl3](-) when chi(SnCl2) = 0.50. Tin(II) chloride was found to precipitate when chi(SnCl2) > 0.63. No evidence was detected for the existence of [SnCl4](-) across the entire range of chi(SnCl2) although such anions have been reported in the literature for chlorostannate(II) organic salts crystallized from organic solvents. Furthermore, the Lewis acidity of the chlorostannate(II)-based systems, expressed by their Gutmann acceptor number, has been determined as a function of the composition, chi(SnCl2), to reveal Lewis acidity for chi(SnCl2) > 0.50 samples comparable to the analogous systems based on zinc(II). A change of the Lewis basicity of the anion was estimated using H-1 NMR spectroscopy, by comparison of the measured chemical shifts of the C-2 hydrogen in the imidazolium ring. Finally, compositions containing free chloride anions (chi(SnCl2) < 0.50) were found to oxidize slowly in air to form a chlorostannate(IV) ionic liquid containing the [SnCl6](2-) anion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1710-1721
JournalInorganic Chemistry
Issue number4
Early online date07 Jun 2012
Publication statusPublished - 18 Feb 2013


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