The importance of the chromosphere in the mass and energy transport within the solar atmosphere is now widely recognised. This review discusses the physics of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves and instabilities in large-scale chromospheric structures as well as in magnetic flux tubes. We highlight a number of key observational aspects that have helped our understanding of the role of the solar chromosphere in various dynamic processes and wave phenomena, and the heating scenario of the solar chromosphere is also discussed. The review focuses on the physics of waves and invokes the basics of plasma instabilities in the context of this important layer of the solar atmosphere. Potential implications, future trends and outstanding questions are also delineated.
Bibliographical noteThis is an invited review article in the special issue "Solar and Heliospheric Plasma Structures: Waves, Turbulence, and Dissipation" of JGR - Space Physics (57 pages, 9 figures, Paper #2020JA029097R) with Editors: Leon Ofman and Shreekrishna Tripathi