Cigarette smokers have exaggerated alveolar barrier disruption in response to lipopolysaccharide inhalation

Farzad Moazed, Ellen L Burnham, R William Vandivier, Cecilia M O'Kane, Murali Shyamsundar, Umar Hamid, Jason Abbott, David R Thickett, Michael A Matthay, Daniel F McAuley, Carolyn S Calfee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

26 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

RATIONALE: Cigarette smoke exposure is associated with an increased risk of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain largely unknown.

OBJECTIVE: To assess pathways of lung injury and inflammation in smokers and non-smokers with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation using established biomarkers.

METHODS: We measured plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) biomarkers of inflammation and lung injury in smokers and non-smokers in two distinct cohorts of healthy volunteers, one unstimulated (n=20) and one undergoing 50 μg LPS inhalation (n=30).

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: After LPS inhalation, cigarette smokers had increased alveolar-capillary membrane permeability as measured by BAL total protein, compared with non-smokers (median 274 vs 208 μg/mL, p=0.04). Smokers had exaggerated inflammation compared with non-smokers, with increased BAL interleukin-1β (p=0.002), neutrophils (p=0.02), plasma interleukin-8 (p=0.003), and plasma matrix metalloproteinase-8 (p=0.006). Alveolar epithelial injury after LPS was more severe in smokers than non-smokers, with increased plasma (p=0.04) and decreased BAL (p=0.02) surfactant protein D. Finally, smokers had decreased BAL vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (p<0.0001) with increased soluble VEGF receptor-1 (p=0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoke exposure may predispose to ARDS through an abnormal response to a 'second hit,' with increased alveolar-capillary membrane permeability, exaggerated inflammation, increased epithelial injury and endothelial dysfunction. LPS inhalation may serve as a useful experimental model for evaluation of the acute pulmonary effects of existing and new tobacco products.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages8
JournalThorax
Early online date02 Feb 2016
DOIs
Publication statusEarly online date - 02 Feb 2016

Bibliographical note

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