Co-exposures of aflatoxins with deoxynivalenol and fumonisins from maize based complementary foods in Rombo, Northern Tanzania

Martin E. Kimanya*, Candida R. Shirima, Happy Magoha, Danstan H. Shewiyo, Bruno De Meulenaer, Patrick Kolsteren, Yun Yun Gong

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)


Children consuming maize based foods in Tanzania may be exposed to multiple mycotoxins. We estimated co-exposures of aflatoxins with Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins for children in rural Tanzania. Food consumption by the children was estimated by twice administering a 24 h dietary recall questionnaire to mothers of 18-24 months old children in Kikelelwa village. Each mother also; provided a sample of maize based flour used for feeding her child in the previous day. Each child's body weight (bw) was measured by following standard procedures. Aflatoxins, DON and fumonisins were determined in each sample using validated HPLC methods. Exposures for a mycotoxin were estimated by multiplying flour consumption (g/child/kgbw/day) by its contamination (mu g/kg). Complete data were obtained for 41 children. Maize flour consumption ranged from 16 to 254 g/child/day. Thirteen (32%) of the 41 children consumed flour with detectable aflatoxin levels (range, 0.11-386 mu g/kg), resulting in exposures from 1 to 786 ng/kg bw/day. All these children exceeded the aflatoxins exposure of concern (0.017 ng/kg bw/day). Eighteen (44%) of the children consumed flour with detectable DON levels (57-825 mu g/kg) and 34(83%), detectable fumonisins levels (63-2284 mu g/kg), resulting in respective exposure ranges of 0.38-8.87 mu g/kg bw/day and 0.19-26.37 mu g/kg bw/day. Twelve (66%) of the DON exposed children and 56% of the fumonisins exposed children exceeded the respective provisional tolerable daily intakes of 1 mu g/kg bw and 2 ng/kg bw. Co-exposures for aflatoxins with both DON and fumonsins were determined in 10% of the 41 children. Co-exposures of aflatoxins with fumonisins alone were found in 29% and of fumonisins with DON alone in 41% of the children. The study showed that children consuming maize based complementary foods in Northern Tanzania are at a risk of exposure to multiple mycotoxins. We recommend adoption of appropriate measures to minimize exposures of multiple mycotoxins in Tanzania. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)76-81
Number of pages6
JournalFood Control
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2014


  • Exposure
  • Aflatoxins
  • Fumonisins
  • Deoxynivalenol
  • Tanzania
  • B-1

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