Cocoa bean and cocoa bean products quality evaluation by NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics: A review

Ernest Teye*, Elliot Anyidoho, Robert Agbemafle, Livingstone K. Sam-Amoah, Chris Elliott

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


Cocoa bean is an international commodity largely produced in developing countries and mostly consumed worldwide in several forms. During the last few decades, rapid detection of cocoa beans and cocoa bean products quality has gained centre stage with many kinds of research conducted. However, no reviews about the application of NIR spectroscopy for cocoa beans and cocoa bean products (CACBP) have been reported. Therefore this review presents application of NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics in the field of the postharvest value chain of cocoa: cocoa beans and cocoa bean products, focusing on the prediction of categorization, authentication, chemical composition, and sensory attributes. In addition geographical classification, fraud and safety are also covered. The information presented in this review clearly shows that NIR spectroscopy has its usefulness in the entire postharvest cocoa bean industry. After analyzing the literature, it was found out that, NIR spectroscopy technology could be successful for qualitative and quantitative examination of CACBP. However, more work needs to be done to move this technology from the laboratory applications to real onsite usage especially among cocoa producing countries in the developing world for optimum global benefits in the face of concerns regarding cocoa bean integrity. This requires the use of extensive samples covering a wide range of cocoa beans from West African.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103127
Number of pages9
JournalInfrared Physics and Technology
Early online date21 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jan 2020


  • Chemometrics
  • Cocoa bean products
  • Cocoa beans
  • Examination
  • NIR spectroscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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