A time-dependent method for calculating the collective excitation frequencies and densities of a trapped, inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate with circulation is presented. The results are compared with time-independent solutions of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. The method is based on time-dependent linear-response theory combined with spectral analysis of moments of the excitation modes of interest. The technique is straightforward to apply, extremely efficient in our implementation with parallel fast Fourier transform methods, and produces highly accurate results. For high dimensionality or low symmetry the time-dependent approach is a more practical computational scheme and produces accurate and reliable data. The method is suitable for general trap geometries, condensate flows and condensates permeated with defects and vortex structures.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics