Combined effect of eating speed instructions and food texture modification on eating rate, appetite and later food intake

Meg Wallace, Hannah O'Hara, Sinead Watson, Ai Ting Goh, Ciarán G. Forde, Gerry McKenna, Jayne V. Woodside

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
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Modifying food texture and eating slowly each reduce appetite and energy intake. No study has evaluated the effect of combining these measures to slow eating speed and determine the effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a combined effect of manipulating oral processing behaviours (OPBs) in this manner on self-reported satiety and subsequent food intake. A 2 × 2 design was used with four breakfast conditions in total. Twenty-four participants attended four study visits where they were asked to consume one of two isocaloric fixed-portion breakfasts differing in texture: 1) granola with milk and 2) yogurt with muesli and conserve. Participants consumed each breakfast twice, with verbal instructions to chew slowly at one visit and at a normal rate at another. Consumption was video-recorded to behaviourally code OPBs. Participants completed visual analogue scales of self-reported appetite measures at the beginning of the test session, immediately prior to and immediately after breakfast consumption. They also completed a food diary documenting food intake for the remainder of the day. The breakfast designed to be eaten slowest (the harder-textured meal with instructions to eat slowly) was eaten at a slower rate, with a greater number of chews per bite and a slower bite rate (p < 0.001) compared to the other meals. No differences were observed between the breakfast conditions on subjective measures of post-prandial satiety, or subsequent energy or macronutrient consumption. Results of this study highlight that combined effects of texture and instructions are most effective at reducing eating rate, though eating slower was not shown to enhance post-meal satiety. Reduced eating speed has previously been shown to reduce ad-libitum energy intake. Future research should consider combined approaches to reduce eating speed, to mitigate the risk of overconsumption within meals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106505
Number of pages7
Early online date28 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 01 May 2023


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