Communication Nonlinearities Techniques for Analysis of Passive Intermodulation

Alexey Shitvov, Alexander Schuchinsky, Dmitry Kozlov

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review


The X-parameter based nonlinear modelling tools have been adopted as the foundation for the advanced methodology
of experimental characterisation and design of passive nonlinear devices. Based upon the formalism of the Xparameters,
it provides a unified framework for co-design of antenna beamforming networks, filters, phase shifters and
other passive and active devices of RF front-end, taking into account the effect of their nonlinearities. The equivalent
circuits of the canonical elements are readily incorporated in the models, thus enabling evaluation of PIM effect on the
performance of individual devices and their assemblies. An important advantage of the presented methodology is its
compatibility with the industry-standard established commercial RF circuit simulator Agilent ADS.
The major challenge in practical implementation of the proposed approach is concerned with experimental retrieval of the X-parameters for canonical passive circuit elements. To our best knowledge commercial PIM testers and practical laboratory test instruments are inherently narrowband and do not allow for simultaneous vector measurements at the PIM and harmonic frequencies. Alternatively, existing nonlinear vector analysers (NVNA) support X-parameter measurements in a broad frequency bands with a range of stimuli, but their dynamic range is insufficient for the PIM characterisation in practical circuits. Further opportunities for adaptation of the X-parameters methodology to the PIM
characterisation of passive devices using the existing test instruments are explored.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Event6th International Workshop on Multipactor, Corona and Passive Intermodulation MULCOPIM 2014 - Valencia, Spain
Duration: 17 Sep 201419 Sep 2014


Conference6th International Workshop on Multipactor, Corona and Passive Intermodulation MULCOPIM 2014


  • passive intermodulation
  • communication nonlinearities
  • nonlinear characterisation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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