Emerging evidence supports the role of immune stimulation in the development of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma/Waldenström Macroglobulinaemia (LPL/WM). Using the population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology End Results-Medicare database we investigated the exposure to 14 common community-acquired infections and subsequent risk of LPL/WM in 693 LPL/WM cases and 200 000 controls. Respiratory tract infections, bronchitis [odds ratio (OR) 1·56], pharyngitis (OR 1·43), pneumonia (OR 1·42) and sinusitis (OR 1·33) and skin infection, herpes zoster (OR 1·51) were all significantly associated with subsequent increased risk of LPL/WM. For each of these infections, the findings remained significantly elevated following the exclusion of more than 6 years of Medicare claims data prior to LPL/WM diagnosis. Our findings may support a role for infections in the development of LPL/WM or could reflect an underlying immune disturbance that is present several years prior to diagnosis and thereby part of the natural history of disease progression.