The Angiopoietin-1/2 system is an opportune target for therapeutic intervention in a wide range of vascular pathologies, particularly through its association with endothelium. The complex multi-domain structure of native human Angiopoietin-1 has hindered its widespread applicability as a therapeutic agent, prompting the search for alternative approaches to mimicking the Ang1:Tie2 signalling axis; a system with highly complex patterns of regulation involving multiple structurally similar molecules. An engineered variant, Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein - Angiopoietin-1 (COMP-Ang1), has been demonstrated to overcome the limitations of the native molecule and activate the Tie2 pathway with several fold greater potency than Ang1, both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic efficacy of COMP-Ang1, at both the vascular and systemic levels, is evident from multiple studies. Beneficial impacts on skeletal muscle regeneration, wound healing and angiogenesis have been reported alongside renoprotective, anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory effects. COMP-Ang1 has also demonstrated synergy with other compounds to heighten bone repair, has been leveraged for potential use as a co-therapeutic for enhanced targeted cancer treatment, and has received considerable attention as an anti-leakage agent for microvascular diseases like diabetic retinopathy. This review examines the vascular Angiopoietin:Tie2 signalling mechanism, evaluates the potential therapeutic merits of engineered COMP-Ang1 in both vascular and systemic contexts, and addresses the inherent translational challenges in moving this potential therapeutic from bench-to-bedside.