Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the main complication of COVID-19, requiring admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Despite extensive immune profiling of COVID-19 patients, to what extent COVID-19-associated ARDS differs from other causes of ARDS remains unknown. To address this question, we build 3 cohorts of patients categorize in COVID-19 ARDS , COVID-19 ARDS , and COVID-19 ARDS , and compare their immune landscape analyze by high-dimensional mass cytometry on peripheral blood. A cell signature associating S100A9/calprotectin-producing CD169 monocytes, plasmablasts, and Th1 cells is found in COVID-19 ARDS , unlike COVID-19 ARDS patients. Moreover, this signature is essentially share with COVID-19 ARDS patients, suggesting that severe COVID-19 patients, whatever they experience or not ARDS, display similar immune profiles. We show an increase in CD14 HLA-DR and CD14 CD16 monocytes correlate to the occurrence of adverse events during ICU stay. We demonstrate that COVID-19-associated ARDS display a specific immune profile, and might benefit from personalize therapy in addition to standard ARDS management.