Comparative performances of birnessite and cryptomelane MnO as electrode material in neutral aqueous lithium salt for supercapacitor application

Aurelien Boisset, Laurence Athouël, Johan Jacquemin, Patrice Porion, Thierry Brousse, Mérièm Anouti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Na-doped Birnessite-type manganese oxide (d-MnO) has been synthesized using the chemical method and characterized through X-ray diffraction and SEM, showing the lamellar structure and high crystal structure. A comparative study of the electrochemical performances of this material with those of the commercial Cryptomelane-type MnO has then been undertaken in ten neutral aqueous electrolytes for supercapacitor applications. Aqueous electrolytes, containing a lithium salt, LiX (where X = SO , NO, CHCO , CHSO, ClO , CHCO, TFSI, Beti, BOB, or Lact), have been first prepared under neutral pH conditions to reach the salt concentration, providing the maximum in conductivity. Their transport properties are then investigated through conductivities, viscosities, and self-diffusion coefficient measurements. Second, the thermal behaviors of these electrolytic aqueous solutions are then evaluated by using a differential scanning calorimeter from (213.15 to 473.15) K in order to access their liquid range temperatures. Cyclic voltammograms (CV) in three electrode configurations are thereafter investigated using Na Birnessite and Cryptomelane as working electrode material from (-0.05 to 1.5) V versus Ag/AgCl at various sweep rates from (2 to 100) mV·s. According to anion nature/structure and manganese oxide material type, different CV responses are observed, presenting a pure capacitive profile for Beti or CH CO and an additional pseudocapacitive signal for the smallest anions, such as ClO and NO . The capacitances, energies, and efficiencies are finally calculated. These results indicate clearly that electrolytes based on a mineral lithium salt under neutral pH condition and high salt concentration (up to 5 mol·L) have better electrochemical performances than organic ones, up to 1.4 V with good material stability and capacity retention. The relationship between transport properties, electrostatic and steric hindrance considerations of hydrated ions, and their electrochemical performances is discussed in order to understand further the lithium intercalation-deintercalation processes in the lamellar or tunnel structure of investigated MnO.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7408-7422
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume117
Issue number15
Early online date01 Mar 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Apr 2013

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