A comparative study regarding the electrocatalytic activity of graphene oxide (GO), chemically-reduced graphene oxide (crGO) and graphene produced by direct liquid exfoliation (dG) is presented. Sensors were developed by modifying glassy carbon (GC) electrodes with GO, crGO and dG and ascorbic acid was used as a pilot analyte. GC/GO electrodes offer substantially lower oxidation overpotential, up to 350 mV, compared with GC/crGO, GC/dG and unmodified GC electrodes. In addition, the different carbon-to-oxygen atomic ratios in GO, as it occurs depending on the synthetic route, were found to have a remarkable effect on the performance of the sensors. Reduction of GO was achieved by immersing the modified electrodes into a stirred solution of NaBH4 for 10 min at room temperature. This process was used alternatively of the time consuming and laborious process of hydrazine, and its effectiveness was confirmed by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Analytical utility of the sensors is demonstrated. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.
- Ascorbic acid
- Chemically-reduced graphene oxide
- Electrochemical sensors
- Graphene oxide