Comparison of a verbal questionnaire and map in eliciting environmental perceptions

Mark Linden*, Noel Sheehy

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


It was proposed that when asked to make judgments concerning locations, the verbal questionnaire would produce very different results compared to a map-based approach. People tend to have very definite perceptions of locations; indeed, Everitt and Cadwallader (1972) found sex differences in how men and women view their home area. The map method has previously been used in the field of spatial cognition research (Buttenfield, 1986; Orleans and Schmidt, 1972) but has yet to be proven as reliable. A map of Ireland and a written questionnaire were created to examine this. The test-retest method was used to assess the reliability with 103 participants taking part in the initial testing and 82 on the retest. Analysis of variance showed significant differences between the map and verbal questionnaire. Correlations between the first and second testing of the map and verbal questionnaire show that both are capable of producing reliable results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)32-40
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironment and Behavior
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jan 2004


  • Maps
  • Methodology
  • Perceptions
  • Questionnaires
  • Reliability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)

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