Comprehensive review on novel targets and emerging therapeutic modalities for pulmonary arterial hypertension

Sagar Dhoble, Vandana Patravale*, Edward Weaver, Dimitrios A. Lamprou*, Tanmay Patravale

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
72 Downloads (Pure)


Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is the progressive increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) (≥20 mmHg at rest). Current treatment strategies include the drugs targeting at nitric oxide pathway, endothelin receptors, prostaglandin receptors, thromboxane receptors and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, which provides the symptomatic relief. Despite of these treatments, the mortality amongst the PAH patients remains high due to non-reversal of the condition. This review primarily covers the introduction of PAH and the current treatments of the disease. This is followed by the newer disease targets expressed in the pathobiology of the disease like Rho Kinase Pathway, Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Pathway, Receptor Tyrosine Kinases, Serotonin signalling pathway, Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel pathway. Newer formulation strategies for targeting at these specific receptors were covered and includes nano formulations like liposomes, Micelles, Polymeric Nanoparticles, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN), Bioresorbable stents, NONOates, Cell-Based Therapies, miRNA therapy for PAH. Novel targets were identified for their role in the pathogenesis of the PAH and needs to be targeted with new molecules or existing molecules effectively. Nanosystems have shown their potential as alternative carriers on the virtue of their better performance than traditional drug delivery systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number121792
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Early online date07 May 2022
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2022


  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension
  • Rho Kinase Pathway
  • Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
  • Liposomes
  • Nanoparticles
  • Bioresorbable stents
  • NONOates
  • cell-based therapies
  • miRNA therapy
  • Solid lipid nanoparticles
  • polymeric nanoparticle


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