Surface patterning in three dimensions is of great importance in biomaterials design for controlling cell behavior. A facile one-step functionalization of biodegradable PDLLA fibers using amphiphilic diblock copolymers is demonstrated here to systematically vary the fiber surface composition. The copolymers comprise a hydrophilic poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate] (POEGMA), poly[(2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine] (PMPC), or poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)] (PDMAEMA) block and a hydrophobic poly(l-lactide) (PLA) block. The block copolymer-modified fibers have increased surface hydrophilicity compared to that of PDLLA fibers. Mixtures of PLAPMPC and PLAPOEGMA copolymers are utilized to exploit microphase separation of the incompatible hydrophilic PMPC and POEGMA blocks at the fiber surface. Conjugation of an RGD cell-adhesive peptide to one hydrophilic block (POEGMA) using thiol-ene chemistry produces fibers with domains of cell-adhesive (POEGMA) and cell-inert (PMPC) sites, mimicking the adhesive properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Human mesenchymal progenitor cells (hES-MPs) showed much better adhesion to the fibers with surface-adhesive heterogeneity compared to that to fibers with only adhesive or only inert surface chemistries.