In the 21st century, information has become the most valuable resource that is available to modern societies. Thus, great efforts have been made to develop new information processing and storage techniques. Chemistry can offer a wide variety of computing paradigms that are closely related to the natural processes found in living organisms (e.g., in the nervous systems of animals). Moreover, these phenomena cannot be reproduced easily by solely using silicon-based technology. Other great advantages of molecular-scale systems include their simplicity and the diversity of interactions that occur among them. Thus, devices constructed using chemical entities may be programmed to deal with different information carriers (photons, electrons, ions, and molecules), possibly surpassing the capabilities of classic electronic circuits.