PURPOSE: To describe a case with bullous keratopathy and anterior segment inflammation associated with heavy liquids. DESIGN: Observational case report. METHODS: Review of clinical and histopathologic changes. RESULTS: A 65-year-old patient underwent a pars plana vitrectomy for a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Perfluorodecalin was used as a temporary retinal tamponade. After surgery, bubbles of heavy liquid were noted in the anterior chamber. Fifteen months later, severe corneal edema developed, associated with corneal vascularization and keratic precipitates. Removal of heavy liquid through a paracentesis was attempted but the cornea remained edematous, and a penetrating keratoplasty was performed. In the histopathologic examination inflammatory changes from retention of perfluorodecalin were observed. There was a decompensated cornea with florid bullous keratopathy, inflammatory infiltration with vascularization, and deposition of perfluorodecalin within keratocytes and perivascular macrophages. CONCLUSION: Presence of heavy liquids in the anterior chamber may be associated with an intense inflammatory response and corneal decompensation.