Abstract The prostanoid biosynthetic enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) is upregulated in several neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of the current study was to employ a neuroendocrine cell (PC12) model of Cox-2 over-expression to identify gene products that might be implicated in the oncogenic and/or inflammatory actions of this enzyme in the setting of neuroendocrine neoplasia. Expression array and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that levels of the neuroendocrine marker chromogranin A (CGA) were 2-fold and 3.2-fold higher, respectively, in Cox-2 over-expressing cells (PCXII) vs their control (PCMT) counterparts. Immunocytochemical and immunoblotting analyses confirmed that both intracellular and secreted levels of CGA were elevated in response to Cox-2 induction. Moreover, exogenous addition of prostaglandin E2 (1uÃ?ÂM), mimicked this effect in PCMT cells, while treatment of PCXII cells with the Cox-2 selective inhibitor NS-398 (100 nM) reduced CGA expression levels, thereby confirming the biospecificity of this finding. Levels of neurone specific enolase (NSE) were similar in the two cell lines, suggesting that the effect of Cox-2 on CGA expression was specific and not due to a global enhancement of neuroendocrine marker expression/differentiation. Cox-2-dependent CGA upregulation was associated with significantly increased chromaffin granule number and intracellular and secreted levels of dopamine. CGA promoter-driven reporter gene expression studies provided evidence that prostaglandin E2-dependent upregulation required a proximal cAMP-responsive element (CRE; -71 - -64 bp). This study is the first to demonstrate that Cox-2 upregulates both CGA expression and bioactivity in a neuroendocrine cell line and has major implications for the role of this polypeptide in the pathogenesis of neuroendocrine cancers in which Cox-2 is upregulated.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Connolly, R., Gates, D., Loh, N., Baban, D., Thakker, R., Johnston, B., Cance, D. M., Ardill, J., O’Connor, D. T., Taupenot, L., & McGinty, A. (2007). Cox-2 Promotes Chromogranin A Expression and Bioactivity: Evidence for a PGE2-Dependent Mechanism and the Involvement of a Proximal cAMP-Responsive Element. Endocrinology, 00(9), 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2007-0167