Samples were taken at each stage of brewing (malt, milling, mashing, wort separation, hop addition, boiling, whirlpool, dilution, fermentation, warm rest, chill-lagering, beer filtration, carbonation and bottling, pasteurization, and storage). The level of antioxidant activity of unfractionated, low-molecular-mass (LMM) and high-molecular-mass (HMM) fractions was measured by the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfortic acid) radical cation (ABTS(.+)) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) procedures. Polyphenol levels were assessed by HPLC. The LMM fraction ( 0.001) in catechin and ferulic acid levels. Increases in antioxidant activity levels were observed after mashing, boiling, fermentation, chill-lagering, and pasteurization, in line with previous studies on lager. Additionally, increases in the level of antioxidant activity occurred after wort separation and carbonation and bottling and were accompanied by increases in levels of most monitored polyphenols. Data from the ABTS(.-) and FRAP assays indicated that the compounds contributing to the levels of antioxidant activity responded differently in the two procedures. Levels of ferulic, vanillic, and chlorogenic acids and catechin accounted for 45-61% of the variation in antioxidant activity levels.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF BREWING CHEMISTS|
|Publication status||Published - 2003|
Pascoe, H. M., Ames, J., & Chandra, S. (2003). Critical stages of the brewing process for changes in antioxidant activity and levels of phenolic compounds in ale. JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF BREWING CHEMISTS, 61, 203-209.