Crystallization: Key thermodynamic, kinetic and hydrodynamic aspects

Sreepriya Vedantam*, Vivek V. Ranade

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Crystallization is extensively used in different industrial applications, including the production of a wide range of materials such as fertilizers, detergents, food and pharmaceutical products, as well as in the mineral processing industries and treatment of waste effluents. In spite of the wide-spread use of crystallization, a clear understanding of the thermodynamic, kinetic and hydrodynamic aspects of the design methodologies are not yet well established. More often than not crystallization is still considered an art especially in fine-chemicals, pharmaceuticals and life-sciences sector. It is essential to understand and relate key thermodynamic, kinetic and hydrodynamic aspects to crystallizer performance, not just in terms of yield but also in terms of product quality (characterized by particle size distribution, morphology, polymorphism and the amount of strain as well as the uptake of solvent or impurities in the crystal lattice). This paper attempts to do that by critically reviewing published experimental and modelling studies on establishing and enhancing state-of-the-art thermodynamic, kinetic and hydrodynamic aspects of crystallization. Efforts are made to discuss and raise points for emerging modelling tools needed for a flexible design and operation of crystallizers and crystallization processes that are needed to meet the ever increasing demand on precise product specifications. Focus is on bringing out the trends which can be used as perspectives for future studies in this field.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1287-1337
Number of pages51
JournalSadhana - Academy Proceedings in Engineering Sciences
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • CFD
  • Crystallization
  • growth
  • nucleation
  • polymorphism
  • supersaturation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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