Cu-Based Nanoalloys in the Base-Free Ullmann Heterocyle-Aryl Ether Synthesis

V. Engels, F. Benaskar, N. Patil, Evgeny Rebrov, V. Hessel, L.A. Hulshof, D.A. Jefferson, J.A.J.M. Vekemans, S. Karwal, J.C. Schouten, A.E.H. Wheatley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


We report the first liquid-liquid Ullmann etherification process mediated not only by oxidatively stable Cu but also by CuZn and CuSn nanoparticle catalysts in conjunction with microwave heating that also avoids the use of solid and expensive bases. Conditions have led to improved turnovers and excellent yields in heteroaromatic Ullmann-type coupling reactions. Further enhancement is achieved upon the addition of 18-crown-6 as a kinetic promoter.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)644-649
Number of pages6
JournalOrganic Process Research & Development
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 21 May 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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