We report the first liquid-liquid Ullmann etherification process mediated not only by oxidatively stable Cu but also by CuZn and CuSn nanoparticle catalysts in conjunction with microwave heating that also avoids the use of solid and expensive bases. Conditions have led to improved turnovers and excellent yields in heteroaromatic Ullmann-type coupling reactions. Further enhancement is achieved upon the addition of 18-crown-6 as a kinetic promoter.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry