Cardiac surgery modulates pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance involving plasma tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) together with urinary transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFß1), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1ra) and tumour necrosis factor soluble receptor-2 (TNFsr2). Effects on post-operative renal function are unclear. We investigated if following cardiac surgery there is a relationship between cytokine (a) phenotype and renal outcome; (b) genotype and phenotype and (c) genotype and renal outcome. Since angiotensin-2 (AG2), modulates TGFß1 production, we determined whether angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) genotype affects urinary TGFß1 phenotype as well as renal outcome.
McBride, W. T., Prasad, P. S., Armstrong, M., Patterson, C., Gilliland, H., Drain, A., Vuylsteke, A., Latimer, R., Khalil, N., Evans, A., Cambien, F., & Young, I. (2013). Cytokine phenotype, genotype, and renal outcomes at cardiac surgery. Cytokine, 61(1), 275-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2012.10.008