Cytotoxic assessment of the regulated, co-existing mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin, in single, binary and tertiary mixtures

Rachel Clarke*, Lisa Connolly, Caroline Frizzell, Christopher T. Elliott

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are contaminants which have been shown to regularly co-occur in a range of foods. However, only a small number of studies have evaluated the interactive effect of binary and tertiary mycotoxins. The present study evaluated the effects of low levels of each mycotoxin in combination at their EU regulatory limits. Toxic effect with respect to cell viability was measured by MTT and neutral red assays, assessing mitochondria and lysosome integrities respectively. Individual toxicity showed that OTA (10 μg/ml) was the most cytotoxic mycotoxin in all three cell lines studied (caco-2, MDBK and raw 264.7). Binary combinations were cytotoxic to the MDBK cell line in the order [OTA/FB1] > [AFB1/FB1] > [AFB1/OTA], whilst all effects observed were classified as being additive. Tertiary combinations of AFB1, FB1 and OTA at the EU regulatory limits were tested and not found to exhibit measurable cytotoxicity in MDBK, caco-2 or raw 264.7 cells. However by increasing these concentrations above the legal limits to OTA (3 μg/ml), FB1 (8 μg/ml) and AFB1 (1.28 μg/ml), cytotoxicity was observed with up to 26% reduction in cell viability and synergistic effects were evident with regard to mitochondrial integrity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)70-81
Number of pages12
JournalToxicon
Volume90
Early online date07 Aug 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2014

Keywords

  • Cytotoxicity
  • Mixture toxicity
  • MTT assay
  • Mycotoxin
  • NR assay
  • Synergy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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