Deep Eutectic Solvents Based on N-Methylacetamide and a Lithium Salt as Electrolytes at Elevated Temperature for Activated Carbon-Based Supercapacitors

Warda Zaidi, Aurelien Boisset, Johan Jacquemin, Laure Timperman, Meriem Anouti*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Citations (Scopus)


This study describes the utilization of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on the mixture of the N-methylacetamide (MAc) with a lithium salt (LiX, with X = bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide, TFSI; hexafluorophosphate, PF6; or nitrate, NO3) as electrolytes for carbon-based supercapacitors at 80 °C. The investigated DESs were formulated by mixing a LiX with the MAc (at xLi = 0.25). All DESs show the typical eutectic characteristic with eutectic points localized in the temperature range from −85 to −52 °C. Using thermal properties measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), solid–liquid equilibrium phase diagrams of investigated LiX–MAc mixtures were then depicted and also compared with those predicted by using the COSMOThermX software. However, the transport properties of selected DESs (such as the conductivity (σ) and the fluidity (η–1)) are not very interesting at ambient temperature, while by increasing the temperature up to 80 °C, these properties become more favorable for electrochemical applications, as shown by the calculated Walden products: w = ση–1 (mS cm–1 Pa–1 s–1) (7 < w < 16 at 25 °C and 513 < w < 649 at 80 °C). This “superionicity” behavior of selected DESs used as electrolytes explains their good cycling ability, which was determined herein by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostic charge–discharge methods, with high capacities up to 380 F g–1 at elevated voltage and temperature, i.e., ΔE = 2.8 V and 80 °C for the LiTFSI–MAc mixture at xLi = 0.25, for example. The electrochemical resistances ESR (equivalent series resistance) and EDR (equivalent diffusion resistance) evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements clearly demonstrate that according to the nature of anion, the mechanism of ions adsorption can be described by pure double-layer adsorption at the specific surface or by the insertion of desolvated ions into the ultramicropores of the activated carbon material. The insertion of lithium ions is observed by the presence of two reversible peaks in the CVs when the operating voltage exceeds 2 V. Finally, the efficiency and capacitance of symmetric AC/AC systems were then evaluated to show the imbalance carbon electrodes caused by important lithium insertion at the negative and by the saturation of the positive by anions, both mechanisms prevent in fact the system to be operational. Considering the promising properties, especially their cost, hazard, and risks of these DESs series, their introduction as safer electrolytes could represent an important challenge for the realization of environmentally friendly EDLCs operating at high temperature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4033-4042
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry C
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 07 Feb 2014




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