Deep learning models for time-series forecasting of RF-EMF in wireless networks

Chi Nguyen, Adnan Ahmad Cheema, Cetin Kurnaz, Ardavan Rahimian, Conor Brennan, Trung Q. Duong

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Radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) forecasting plays an important role in the evaluation of regulatory compliance, network planning and system optimization. The knowledge of RF-EMF levels is essential to ensure compliance with standards and avoid public health concerns, especially with the arrival of new frequencies and scenarios in fifth-generation (5G) and sixth generation (6G) wireless networks. This work provides a comprehensive study on time series forecasting for RF-EMF measured in frequency from 100 kHz - 3 GHz. The state-of-the-art deep learning model architectures consist of deep neural network (DNN), convolutional neural network (CNN), long-short term memory (LSTM), and transformer are applied for time series forecasting. The prediction performance is evaluated under three different scenarios - namely single-step input single-step output (SISO), multi-step input single-step output (MISO), and multi-step input multi-step output (MIMO). The findings from the simulation demonstrate that SISO forecasting is inadequate in predicting long-term radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) data as it lacks accuracy while MISO and MIMO forecasting scenarios offer more precise predictions. Specifically, in these two scenarios where the input width and label width are both set to 20 steps, the LSTM and CNN models exhibit superior performance compared to other models. Nonetheless, as the input width and label width in a MIMO scenario increase, the accuracy of both CNN and LSTM models decline considerably, whereas the transformer model consistently maintains good performance. Additionally, the transformer model continues to deliver accurate predictions as the label width and shift length increase, which is not the case for DNN, CNN, and LSTM models.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1399 - 1414
JournalIEEE Open Journal of the Communications Society
Publication statusPublished - 13 Feb 2024


  • Computer Networks and Communications


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