Deep (offset) non-invasive Raman spectroscopy for the evaluation of food and beverages – A review

Alejandra Arroyo-Cerezo, Ana M. Jimenez-Carvelo*, Antonio González-Casado, Anastasios Koidis, Luis Cuadros-Rodríguez

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
223 Downloads (Pure)


Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) technique was developed to overcome the problem with qualitative or quantitative analysis of materials through packaging. To achieve that, the instrument is configured so that the Raman scattered signal is collected at a spatially offset at some distance from the excitation laser spot on the sample. In this way, the Raman spectra are recovered from the sample's sub-surface, providing a characteristic fingerprint of the product that requires a suitable multivariate data analysis to obtain the desired information. Despite the great potential for the technique, SORS applications in the food and agriculture sector are scarce in the literature. This paper is a review of all the studies reported to date where SORS is applied to analyse different foods and beverages. All of them have presented results that demonstrate the ability of SORS to carry out rapid and non-invasive through-the-container measurements and to ensure quality control and authentication of raw materials and end products. The reviewed studies include food analysis of animal and plant origin, through the surface of the food itself, as well as through the original packaging. Using the Raman spectra data, chemometric analyses were used to group, e.g., different varieties or species of the same type of potatoes, cuts of meat or alcoholic beverages, as well as to group them according to differences such as the state of ripeness of tomatoes, or the composition of fish, meat and potatoes, among others. There is a promising future for SORS in foodstuff analysis, so the technique must continue to be studied and evolve in order to obtain the appropriate methodology and instrumentation. In addition, the development of SORS portable instruments greatly facilitates the measurement operation and opens new opportunities for applications in the field or in industrial food processing premises.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111822
Early online date28 May 2021
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
AAC wish to acknowledge the University of Granada-Banco Santander for awarding an Initiation Scholarship for Research for Official Masters Students, within the programme ?Research and Transfer Internal Plan? of the University of Granada. In addition, AMJC thanks ?European Network for assuring food integrity using non-destructive spectral sensors (SensorFINT)" European COST ACTION for awarding short-term scientific missions (STSM) mobility grant.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Analysis through packaging
  • Food characterization
  • Multivariate analysis
  • Quality control
  • Spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Deep (offset) non-invasive Raman spectroscopy for the evaluation of food and beverages – A review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this