Degradation of carbon disulphide (CS2) in soils and groundwater from a CS2 -contaminated site

Siobhan F. Cox, John D. McKinley, Andrew S. Ferguson, Gwen O'Sullivan, Robert M. Kalin

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    Abstract

    This study is the first investigation of biodegradation of carbon disulphide (CS2) in soil that provides estimates of degradation rates and identifies intermediate degradation products and carbon isotope signatures of degradation. Microcosm studies were undertaken under anaerobic conditions using soil and groundwater recovered from CS2-contaminated sites. Proposed degradation mechanisms were validated using equilibrium speciation modelling of concentrations and carbon isotope ratios. A first-order degradation rate constant of 1.25 × 10-2 h-1 was obtained for biological degradation with soil. Carbonyl sulphide (COS) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) were found to be intermediates of degradation, but did not accumulate in vials. A 13C/12C enrichment factor of -7.5 ± 0.8 ‰ was obtained for degradation within microcosms with both soil and groundwater whereas a 13C/12C enrichment factor of -23.0 ± 2.1 ‰ was obtained for degradation with site groundwater alone. It can be concluded that biological degradation of both CS2-contaminated soil and groundwater is likely to occur in the field suggesting that natural attenuation may be an appropriate remedial tool at some sites. The presence of biodegradation by-products including COS and H2S indicates that biodegradation of CS2 is occurring and stable carbon isotopes are a promising tool to quantify CS2 degradation.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1935-1944
    Number of pages10
    JournalEnvironmental Earth Sciences
    Volume68
    Issue number7
    Early online date15 Aug 2012
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013

    Fingerprint

    carbon disulfide
    Carbon Disulfide
    Carbon disulfide
    Groundwater
    groundwater
    Soils
    Degradation
    biodegradation
    degradation
    carbon
    soil
    Carbon Isotopes
    carbonyl sulfide
    isotopes
    Biodegradation
    Isotopes
    microcosm
    carbon isotope
    Carbon
    sulfide

    Keywords

    • Carbon disulphide
    • Carbon disulfide
    • Biodegradation
    • Microcosms
    • Natural attenuation
    • Stable carbon isotopes

    Cite this

    Cox, Siobhan F. ; McKinley, John D. ; Ferguson, Andrew S. ; O'Sullivan, Gwen ; Kalin, Robert M. / Degradation of carbon disulphide (CS2) in soils and groundwater from a CS2 -contaminated site. In: Environmental Earth Sciences. 2013 ; Vol. 68, No. 7. pp. 1935-1944.
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    abstract = "This study is the first investigation of biodegradation of carbon disulphide (CS2) in soil that provides estimates of degradation rates and identifies intermediate degradation products and carbon isotope signatures of degradation. Microcosm studies were undertaken under anaerobic conditions using soil and groundwater recovered from CS2-contaminated sites. Proposed degradation mechanisms were validated using equilibrium speciation modelling of concentrations and carbon isotope ratios. A first-order degradation rate constant of 1.25 × 10-2 h-1 was obtained for biological degradation with soil. Carbonyl sulphide (COS) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) were found to be intermediates of degradation, but did not accumulate in vials. A 13C/12C enrichment factor of -7.5 ± 0.8 ‰ was obtained for degradation within microcosms with both soil and groundwater whereas a 13C/12C enrichment factor of -23.0 ± 2.1 ‰ was obtained for degradation with site groundwater alone. It can be concluded that biological degradation of both CS2-contaminated soil and groundwater is likely to occur in the field suggesting that natural attenuation may be an appropriate remedial tool at some sites. The presence of biodegradation by-products including COS and H2S indicates that biodegradation of CS2 is occurring and stable carbon isotopes are a promising tool to quantify CS2 degradation.",
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    Degradation of carbon disulphide (CS2) in soils and groundwater from a CS2 -contaminated site. / Cox, Siobhan F.; McKinley, John D.; Ferguson, Andrew S.; O'Sullivan, Gwen; Kalin, Robert M.

    In: Environmental Earth Sciences, Vol. 68, No. 7, 04.2013, p. 1935-1944.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Degradation of carbon disulphide (CS2) in soils and groundwater from a CS2 -contaminated site

    AU - Cox, Siobhan F.

    AU - McKinley, John D.

    AU - Ferguson, Andrew S.

    AU - O'Sullivan, Gwen

    AU - Kalin, Robert M.

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    N2 - This study is the first investigation of biodegradation of carbon disulphide (CS2) in soil that provides estimates of degradation rates and identifies intermediate degradation products and carbon isotope signatures of degradation. Microcosm studies were undertaken under anaerobic conditions using soil and groundwater recovered from CS2-contaminated sites. Proposed degradation mechanisms were validated using equilibrium speciation modelling of concentrations and carbon isotope ratios. A first-order degradation rate constant of 1.25 × 10-2 h-1 was obtained for biological degradation with soil. Carbonyl sulphide (COS) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) were found to be intermediates of degradation, but did not accumulate in vials. A 13C/12C enrichment factor of -7.5 ± 0.8 ‰ was obtained for degradation within microcosms with both soil and groundwater whereas a 13C/12C enrichment factor of -23.0 ± 2.1 ‰ was obtained for degradation with site groundwater alone. It can be concluded that biological degradation of both CS2-contaminated soil and groundwater is likely to occur in the field suggesting that natural attenuation may be an appropriate remedial tool at some sites. The presence of biodegradation by-products including COS and H2S indicates that biodegradation of CS2 is occurring and stable carbon isotopes are a promising tool to quantify CS2 degradation.

    AB - This study is the first investigation of biodegradation of carbon disulphide (CS2) in soil that provides estimates of degradation rates and identifies intermediate degradation products and carbon isotope signatures of degradation. Microcosm studies were undertaken under anaerobic conditions using soil and groundwater recovered from CS2-contaminated sites. Proposed degradation mechanisms were validated using equilibrium speciation modelling of concentrations and carbon isotope ratios. A first-order degradation rate constant of 1.25 × 10-2 h-1 was obtained for biological degradation with soil. Carbonyl sulphide (COS) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S) were found to be intermediates of degradation, but did not accumulate in vials. A 13C/12C enrichment factor of -7.5 ± 0.8 ‰ was obtained for degradation within microcosms with both soil and groundwater whereas a 13C/12C enrichment factor of -23.0 ± 2.1 ‰ was obtained for degradation with site groundwater alone. It can be concluded that biological degradation of both CS2-contaminated soil and groundwater is likely to occur in the field suggesting that natural attenuation may be an appropriate remedial tool at some sites. The presence of biodegradation by-products including COS and H2S indicates that biodegradation of CS2 is occurring and stable carbon isotopes are a promising tool to quantify CS2 degradation.

    KW - Carbon disulphide

    KW - Carbon disulfide

    KW - Biodegradation

    KW - Microcosms

    KW - Natural attenuation

    KW - Stable carbon isotopes

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