The presence and biological significance of circulating glycated insulin has been evaluated by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), radioimmunoassay (RIA), receptor binding, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp techniques. ESI-MS analysis of an HPLC-purified plasma pool from four male type 2 diabetic subjects (HbA(1e) 8.1 +/- 0.2%, plasma glucose 8.7 +/- 1.3 mmol/l [means +/- SE]) revealed two major insulin-like peaks with retention times of 14-16 min. After spectral averaging, the peak with retention time of 14.32 min exhibited a prominent triply charged (M+3H)(3+) species at 1,991.1 m/z, representing monoglycated insulin with an intact M-r of 5,970.3 Da. The second peak (retention time 15.70 min) corresponded to native insulin (M-r 5,807.6 Da), with the difference between the two peptides (162.7 Da) representing a single glucitol adduct (theoretical 164 Da). Measurement of glycated insulin in plasma of type 2 diabetic subjects by specific RIA gave circulating levels of 10.1 +/- 2.3 pmol/l, corresponding to -9% total insulin. Biological activity of pure synthetic monoglycated insulin (insulin B-chain Phe(1)-glucitol adduct) was evaluated in seven overnight-fasted healthy nonobese male volunteers using two-step euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps (2 h at 16.6 mug (.) kg(-1) (.) min(-1), followed by 2 h at 83.0 mug (.) kg(-1) (.) min(-1); corresponding to 0.4 and 2.0 mU (.) kg(-1) (.) min(-1)). At the lower dose, the exogenons glucose infusion rates required to maintain euglycemia during steady state were significantly lower with glycated insulin (P
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - 01 Feb 2003|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Internal Medicine
Hunter, S. J., Boyd, A. C., O'Harte, F. P. M., McKillop, A. M., Wiggam, M. I., Mooney, M., McCluskey, J. T., Ennis, C. N., Gamble, R., Sheridan, B., Barnett, C. R., McNulty, H., Bell, P. M., Flatt, P. R., & Lindsay, J. (2003). Demonstration of glycated insulin in human diabetic plasma and decreased biological activity assessed by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique in humans. Diabetes, 52(2), 492-498.