Demonstrations as actions

Tadeusz Ciecierski*, Piotr Tomasz Makowski

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
11 Downloads (Pure)


This paper presents a dual intention model (DIM) of demonstrations as actions to show the agentive nature of demonstrations. According to the DIM, demonstrations are complex actions that contain as components at least three elements: an abductive intention, a deictic intention, and a basic ostensive act of indication. This paper unpacks these three components and discusses their roles from the viewpoint of the philosophy of action and the philosophy of language. It also shows how the DIM applies in selected practical examples and explains the merits of the model in the context of other views on demonstrations and demonstratives.

Original languageEnglish
Article number467
Number of pages25
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 05 Nov 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).


  • Abduction
  • Actions
  • Demonstrations
  • Dmonstratives
  • Indexicals
  • Intentions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Philosophy
  • General Social Sciences


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