Ubiquitination regulates immune signaling, and multiple E3 ubiquitin ligases have been studied in the context of their role in immunity. Despite this progress, the physiological roles of the Pellino E3 ubiquitin ligases, especially Pellino2, in immune regulation remain largely unknown. Accordingly, this study aimed to elucidate the role of Pellino2 in murine dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we reveal a critical role of Pellino2 in regulation of the proinflammatory response following TLR9 stimulation. Pellino2-deficient murine DCs show impaired secretion of IL-6 and IL-12. Loss of Pellino2 does not affect TLR9-induced activation of NF-κB or MAPKs, pathways that drive expression of IL-6 and IL-12. Furthermore, DCs from Pellino2-deficient mice show impaired production of type I IFN following endosomal TLR9 activation, and it partly mediates a feed-forward loop of IFN-β that promotes IL-12 production in DCs. We also observe that Pellino2 in murine DCs is downregulated following TLR9 stimulation, and its overexpression induces upregulation of both IFN-β and IL-12, demonstrating the sufficiency of Pellino2 in driving these responses. This suggests that Pellino2 is critical for executing TLR9 signaling, with its expression being tightly regulated to prevent excessive inflammatory response. Overall, this study highlights a (to our knowledge) novel role for Pellino2 in regulating DC functions and further supports important roles for Pellino proteins in mediating and controlling immunity.
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2021 The Authors.
- Dendritic Cells/immunology
- Gene Expression Regulation
- Mice, Inbred C57BL
- Mice, Knockout
- Nuclear Proteins/genetics
- Signal Transduction
- Toll-Like Receptor 9/metabolism