Density functional and Monte Carlo studies of sulfur. II. Equilibrium polymerization of the liquid phase

Pietro Ballone, R.O. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The equilibrium polymerization of sulfur is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. The potential energy model is based on density functional results for the cohesive energy, structural, and vibrational properties as well as reactivity of sulfur rings and chains [Part I, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9257 (2003)]. Liquid samples of 2048 atoms are simulated at temperatures 450less than or equal toTless than or equal to850 K and P=0 starting from monodisperse S-8 molecular compositions. Thermally activated bond breaking processes lead to an equilibrium population of unsaturated atoms that can change the local pattern of covalent bonds and allow the system to approach equilibrium. The concentration of unsaturated atoms and the kinetics of bond interchanges is determined by the energy DeltaE(b) required to break a covalent bond. Equilibrium with respect to the bond distribution is achieved for 15less than or equal toDeltaE(b)less than or equal to21 kcal/mol over a wide temperature range (Tgreater than or equal to450 K), within which polymerization occurs readily, with entropy from the bond distribution overcompensating the increase in enthalpy. There is a maximum in the polymerized fraction at temperature T-max that depends on DeltaE(b). This fraction decreases at higher temperature because broken bonds and short chains proliferate and, for Tless than or equal toT(max), because entropy is less important than enthalpy. The molecular size distribution is described well by a Zimm-Schulz function, plus an isolated peak for S-8. Large molecules are almost exclusively open chains. Rings tend to have fewer than 24 atoms, and only S-8 is present in significant concentrations at all T. The T dependence of the density and the dependence of polymerization fraction and degree on DeltaE(b) give estimates of the polymerization temperature T-f=450+/-20 K. (C) 2003 American Institute of Physics.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8704-8715
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Chemical Physics
Volume119
Issue number16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Oct 2003

Fingerprint

Sulfur
liquid phases
sulfur
polymerization
Polymerization
covalent bonds
Liquids
Atoms
Covalent bonds
atoms
enthalpy
entropy
Enthalpy
Entropy
Temperature
temperature
rings
Interchanges
Potential energy
reactivity

Cite this

@article{1d107e53ca3740afb9cd002d96289753,
title = "Density functional and Monte Carlo studies of sulfur. II. Equilibrium polymerization of the liquid phase",
abstract = "The equilibrium polymerization of sulfur is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. The potential energy model is based on density functional results for the cohesive energy, structural, and vibrational properties as well as reactivity of sulfur rings and chains [Part I, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9257 (2003)]. Liquid samples of 2048 atoms are simulated at temperatures 450less than or equal toTless than or equal to850 K and P=0 starting from monodisperse S-8 molecular compositions. Thermally activated bond breaking processes lead to an equilibrium population of unsaturated atoms that can change the local pattern of covalent bonds and allow the system to approach equilibrium. The concentration of unsaturated atoms and the kinetics of bond interchanges is determined by the energy DeltaE(b) required to break a covalent bond. Equilibrium with respect to the bond distribution is achieved for 15less than or equal toDeltaE(b)less than or equal to21 kcal/mol over a wide temperature range (Tgreater than or equal to450 K), within which polymerization occurs readily, with entropy from the bond distribution overcompensating the increase in enthalpy. There is a maximum in the polymerized fraction at temperature T-max that depends on DeltaE(b). This fraction decreases at higher temperature because broken bonds and short chains proliferate and, for Tless than or equal toT(max), because entropy is less important than enthalpy. The molecular size distribution is described well by a Zimm-Schulz function, plus an isolated peak for S-8. Large molecules are almost exclusively open chains. Rings tend to have fewer than 24 atoms, and only S-8 is present in significant concentrations at all T. The T dependence of the density and the dependence of polymerization fraction and degree on DeltaE(b) give estimates of the polymerization temperature T-f=450+/-20 K. (C) 2003 American Institute of Physics.",
author = "Pietro Ballone and R.O. Jones",
year = "2003",
month = "10",
day = "22",
doi = "10.1063/1.1611475",
language = "English",
volume = "119",
pages = "8704--8715",
journal = "Journal of Chemical Physics",
issn = "0021-9606",
publisher = "American Institute of Physics Publising LLC",
number = "16",

}

Density functional and Monte Carlo studies of sulfur. II. Equilibrium polymerization of the liquid phase. / Ballone, Pietro; Jones, R.O.

In: Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 119, No. 16, 22.10.2003, p. 8704-8715.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Density functional and Monte Carlo studies of sulfur. II. Equilibrium polymerization of the liquid phase

AU - Ballone, Pietro

AU - Jones, R.O.

PY - 2003/10/22

Y1 - 2003/10/22

N2 - The equilibrium polymerization of sulfur is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. The potential energy model is based on density functional results for the cohesive energy, structural, and vibrational properties as well as reactivity of sulfur rings and chains [Part I, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9257 (2003)]. Liquid samples of 2048 atoms are simulated at temperatures 450less than or equal toTless than or equal to850 K and P=0 starting from monodisperse S-8 molecular compositions. Thermally activated bond breaking processes lead to an equilibrium population of unsaturated atoms that can change the local pattern of covalent bonds and allow the system to approach equilibrium. The concentration of unsaturated atoms and the kinetics of bond interchanges is determined by the energy DeltaE(b) required to break a covalent bond. Equilibrium with respect to the bond distribution is achieved for 15less than or equal toDeltaE(b)less than or equal to21 kcal/mol over a wide temperature range (Tgreater than or equal to450 K), within which polymerization occurs readily, with entropy from the bond distribution overcompensating the increase in enthalpy. There is a maximum in the polymerized fraction at temperature T-max that depends on DeltaE(b). This fraction decreases at higher temperature because broken bonds and short chains proliferate and, for Tless than or equal toT(max), because entropy is less important than enthalpy. The molecular size distribution is described well by a Zimm-Schulz function, plus an isolated peak for S-8. Large molecules are almost exclusively open chains. Rings tend to have fewer than 24 atoms, and only S-8 is present in significant concentrations at all T. The T dependence of the density and the dependence of polymerization fraction and degree on DeltaE(b) give estimates of the polymerization temperature T-f=450+/-20 K. (C) 2003 American Institute of Physics.

AB - The equilibrium polymerization of sulfur is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations. The potential energy model is based on density functional results for the cohesive energy, structural, and vibrational properties as well as reactivity of sulfur rings and chains [Part I, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9257 (2003)]. Liquid samples of 2048 atoms are simulated at temperatures 450less than or equal toTless than or equal to850 K and P=0 starting from monodisperse S-8 molecular compositions. Thermally activated bond breaking processes lead to an equilibrium population of unsaturated atoms that can change the local pattern of covalent bonds and allow the system to approach equilibrium. The concentration of unsaturated atoms and the kinetics of bond interchanges is determined by the energy DeltaE(b) required to break a covalent bond. Equilibrium with respect to the bond distribution is achieved for 15less than or equal toDeltaE(b)less than or equal to21 kcal/mol over a wide temperature range (Tgreater than or equal to450 K), within which polymerization occurs readily, with entropy from the bond distribution overcompensating the increase in enthalpy. There is a maximum in the polymerized fraction at temperature T-max that depends on DeltaE(b). This fraction decreases at higher temperature because broken bonds and short chains proliferate and, for Tless than or equal toT(max), because entropy is less important than enthalpy. The molecular size distribution is described well by a Zimm-Schulz function, plus an isolated peak for S-8. Large molecules are almost exclusively open chains. Rings tend to have fewer than 24 atoms, and only S-8 is present in significant concentrations at all T. The T dependence of the density and the dependence of polymerization fraction and degree on DeltaE(b) give estimates of the polymerization temperature T-f=450+/-20 K. (C) 2003 American Institute of Physics.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0242677757&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1063/1.1611475

DO - 10.1063/1.1611475

M3 - Article

VL - 119

SP - 8704

EP - 8715

JO - Journal of Chemical Physics

JF - Journal of Chemical Physics

SN - 0021-9606

IS - 16

ER -