Depletion of four nitrofuran antibiotics and their tissue-bound metabolites in porcine tissues and determination using LC-MS/MS and HPLC-UV

K M Cooper, P P J Mulder, J A van Rhijn, L Kovacsics, R J McCracken, P B Young, D G Kennedy

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90 Citations (Scopus)


Depletion of the nitrofuran antibiotics furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin and nitrofurazone and their tissue-bound metabolites AOZ, AMOZ, AHD and SEM from pig muscle, liver and kidney tissues is described. Groups of pigs were given feed medicated with one of the nitrofuran drugs at a therapeutic concentration (400 mg kg(-1)) for ten days. Animals were slaughtered at intervals and tissue samples collected for analysis for six weeks following withdrawal of medicated feed. These samples were analysed both for parent nitrofurans (using LC-MS/MS and HPLC-UV), and for tissue-bound metabolites (using LC-MS/MS). The parent drugs were detectable only sporadically and only in pigs subjected to no withdrawal period whatsoever. This confirms the instability of the four major nitrofuran antibiotics in edible tissues. In contrast, the metabolites accumulated to high concentrations in tissues (ppm levels) and had depletion half lives of between 5.5 and 15.5 days. The metabolites of all four drugs were still readily detectable in tissues six weeks after cessation of treatment. This emphasizes the benefits of monitoring for the stable metabolites of the nitrofurans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)406-414
Number of pages9
JournalFood Additives and Contaminants
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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