Detection of influenza D virus in bovine respiratory disease samples, UK

Hannah Dane, Catherine Duffy, Maria Guelbenzu, Ben Hause, Sean Fee, Fiona Forster, Michael J. McMenamy, Ken Lemon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


Influenza D is a newly described virus of cattle, pigs and small ruminants first detected in North America during 2011. Cattle have been shown to be the main viral reservoir and mounting evidence indicates that infection with influenza D may contribute to the development of bovine respiratory disease. The virus has been detected across the United States, Europe and Asia. To date, influenza D has not been reported in the UK. During the winter and spring of 2017/2018, we performed molecular testing of cattle submitted for post-mortem examination where respiratory disease signs were present. We detected influenza D virus in 8.7% of cases, often as the sole viral agent and always in conjunction with bacterial co-infection with one or more agents. Viral RNA was present in both the upper and lower respiratory tract and pathological changes in lung tissues were observed alongside signs of concurrent bacterial infections. Sequencing of one UK isolate revealed that it is similar to viruses from the Republic of Ireland and Italy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2184-2187
Number of pages4
JournalTransboundary and Emerging Diseases
Issue number5
Early online date22 Jun 2019
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2019


  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • General Veterinary
  • General Medicine


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