Detection of sugar syrups in apple juice by δ2H‰ and δ13C‰ analysis of hexamethylenetetramine prepared from fructose

Simon D. Kelly, Christopher Rhodes*, Janice H. Lofthouse, Dominic Anderson, Christine E. Burwood, M. John Dennis, Paul Brereton

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


An improved procedure for determining 13C and 2H isotope ratios, using gas chromatography- isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS), has been developed for identifying the addition of low cost commercial sugar syrups to apple juices and related products. Isotopic techniques are commonly used to identify the addition of low cost sugars to fruit juices and are difficult to circumvent as it is not economically viable to change the isotopic ratios of the sugars. The procedure utilizes the derivative hexamethylenetetramine, which is produced through chemical transformation of a sugar degradation product and provides position-specific 13C and 2H ratios that relate to the parent sugar molecule. The new procedure has advantages over methods using nitro-sugar derivatives in terms of analysis time and sensitivity. The differences between the δ2H‰ and δ13C‰ values of the 100 authentic apple juices and beet and cane commercial sugar syrups permit their addition to be reliably detected.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1801-1806
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 26 Mar 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Apple juice
  • Authenticity
  • Hydrogen isotope
  • Pyrolysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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