Determinants of recovery from post-COVID-19 dyspnoea: analysis of UK prospective cohorts of hospitalised COVID-19 patients and community-based controls

Bang Zheng, Giulia Vivaldi, Luke Daines, Olivia C. Leavy, Matthew Richardson, Omer Elneima, Hamish J.C. McAuley, Aarti Shikotra, Amisha Singapuri, Marco Sereno, Ruth M. Saunders, Victoria C. Harris, Linzy Houchen-Wolloff, Neil J. Greening, Paul E. Pfeffer, John R. Hurst, Jeremy S. Brown, Manu Shankar-Hari, Carlos Echevarria, Anthony De SoyzaEwen M. Harrison, Annemarie B. Docherty, Nazir Lone, Jennifer K. Quint, James D. Chalmers, Ling-Pei Ho, Alex Horsley, Michael Marks, Krishna Poinasamy, Betty Raman, Liam G. Heaney, Louise V. Wain, Rachael A. Evans, Christopher E. Brightling, Adrian Martineau, Aziz Sheikh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background
The risk factors for recovery from COVID-19 dyspnoea are poorly understood. We investigated determinants of recovery from dyspnoea in adults with COVID-19 and compared these to determinants of recovery from non-COVID-19 dyspnoea.

Methods
We used data from two prospective cohort studies: PHOSP-COVID (patients hospitalised between March 2020 and April 2021 with COVID-19) and COVIDENCE UK (community cohort studied over the same time period). PHOSP-COVID data were collected during hospitalisation and at 5-month and 1-year follow-up visits. COVIDENCE UK data were obtained through baseline and monthly online questionnaires. Dyspnoea was measured in both cohorts with the Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify determinants associated with a reduction in dyspnoea between 5-month and 1-year follow-up.

Findings
We included 990 PHOSP-COVID and 3309 COVIDENCE UK participants. We observed higher odds of improvement between 5-month and 1-year follow-up among PHOSP-COVID participants who were younger (odds ratio 1.02 per year, 95% CI 1.01–1.03), male (1.54, 1.16–2.04), neither obese nor severely obese (1.82, 1.06–3.13 and 4.19, 2.14–8.19, respectively), had no pre-existing anxiety or depression (1.56, 1.09–2.22) or cardiovascular disease (1.33, 1.00–1.79), and shorter hospital admission (1.01 per day, 1.00–1.02). Similar associations were found in those recovering from non-COVID-19 dyspnoea, excluding age (and length of hospital admission).

Interpretation
Factors associated with dyspnoea recovery at 1-year post-discharge among patients hospitalised with COVID-19 were similar to those among community controls without COVID-19.

Funding
PHOSP-COVID is supported by a grant from the MRC-UK Research and Innovation and the Department of Health and Social Care through the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) rapid response panel to tackle COVID-19. The views expressed in the publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the National Health Service (NHS), the NIHR or the Department of Health and Social Care.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100635
JournalThe Lancet regional health. Europe
Volume29
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 02 Jun 2023

Keywords

  • Recovery
  • Cohort
  • Dyspnoea
  • Covid-19
  • Long Covid

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