After thermal treatment of a mixture of glucose and glycine for 2 h at 125 degreesC, about 60% of the starting material was converted into nonsoluble, black pigments, whereas 40% of the mixture was still water-soluble. Dialysis of the latter fraction revealed 30.4% of low molecular weight compounds (LMWs; MW <10 000 De) and 10.0% high-molecular weight products [HMWs; MW greater than or equal to 10000 Dal. The water-soluble Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were separated by gel permeation chromatography and ultrafiltration, revealing that 60% of the water-soluble products of the total carbohydrate/amino acid mixture had MWs <1 000 Da and consisted mainly of non-coloured reaction products. MRPs with MWs between 1000 and 30000 Da were Found in comparatively low yields (about 1.3%). In contrast, about 31.1% of the MRPs exhibited MWs > 30000 Da, amongst which 14.5% showed MWs > 100000 Da, thus indicating an oligomerisation of LMWs to melanoidins under roasting conditions. To investigate the physiological effects of these MRPs, xenobiotic enzyme activities were analysed in intestinal Caco-2 cells. For Phase-I NADPH-cytochrome c-reductase, the activity in the presence of the LMW and HMW fraction was decreased by 13% and 22%: respectively. Phase-II glutathione-S-transferase activity decreased by 15% and 18%, respectively, after incubation with the LMW and the HMW fractions. Considering the different yields, 30% and 10%, respectively, of the LMW and the HMW fractions, the total amount of the LMW fraction present in the glucose-glycine mixture is more active in modulating three enzyme activities than that of the HMW fraction.
|Number of pages||6|
|Publication status||Published - 2001|