The depletion of three banned nitroimidazole drugs (dimetridazole (DMZ), metronidazole (MNZ) and ronidazole (RNZ)) was investigated in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) following in-water medication. The highest concentrations of residues were measured immediately after the 24 h immersion (day 0). At this time, MNZ and MNZ-OH residues were measured in shrimp tissue samples at concentrations ranging from 361–4189 and 0.28–6.6 μg kg−1, respectively. DMZ and its metabolites HMMNI ranged in concentration between 31509–37780 and 15.0–31.9 μg kg−1, respectively. RNZ and HMMNI concentrations ranged 14530–24206 and 25.0–55 μg kg−1, respectively. MNZ, DMZ and RNZ were the more persistent marker residues and can be detected for at least eight days post-treatment. MNZ-OH was only detectable on day 0 following treatment with MNZ. HMMNI residues were only detectable up to day 1 (0.97–3.2 μg kg−1) or 2 (1.2–4.5 μg kg−1) following DMZ and RNZ treatment, respectively. The parent drugs, MNZ, DMZ and RNZ were still measureable on day 8 at 0.12–1.00, 40.5–55 and 8.8–18.7 μg kg−1, respectively. The study also investigated the stability of nitroimidazole residues under various cooking procedures (frying, grilling, boiling and boiling followed by microwaving). The experiments were carried out in shrimp muscle tissue containing both high and low concentrations of these residues. Different cooking procedures showed the impact on nitroimidazole residue concentration in shrimp tissuetheir concentration depleted significantly, but partially, by boiling and/or microwaving but the compounds were largely resistant to conventional grilling or frying. Cooking cannot therefore be considered as a safeguard against harmful nitroimidazole residues in shrimp.
Gadaj, A., Cooper, K. M., Karoonuthaisiri, N., Furey, A., & Danaher, M. (2015). Determination of the persistence of dimetridazole, metronidazole and ronidazole residues in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) tissue and stability during cooking. Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A, 32(2), 180-193. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2014.983997