Determining the Distribution of Battery Electric and Fuel Cell Electric Buses in a Metropolitan Public Transport Network

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In recent years the world has come under increased pressure to reduce the harmful emissions caused by the burning of fossil fuels. In 2019 in the UK (pre-COVID), the transport sector was estimated to have emitted 27% of all greenhouse gas emissions, making it the highest emitting sector. This has led to government action, banning the sale of petrol and diesel cars by 2030, as well as the introduction of low and zero emission zones in our cities. Public transport modes, especially city buses, must therefore also transition towards zero emission technologies to continue to operate within city centres. Battery electric buses are currently the most common choice, with both single deck and double deck vehicles in regular use. However, long-term operational capabilities are still largely unknown and unreported. Hydrogen fuel cell electric buses are an emerging zero emission technology that have the potential to complement a battery electric bus fleet where the duty cycle is challenging for current battery electric configurations. In this study k-means cluster analysis is used to reduce a typical city bus network to a limited number of representative synthetic drive cycles, against which battery electric and hydrogen fuel cell bus technologies are evaluated. The resulting study derives energy consumption for a given chassis configuration, passenger load and heating requirement to determine the best technology for a cluster of routes. The methodology employed can provide bus operators with a robust mechanism to inform buying decision when transitioning to a zero emission fleet.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication WCX SAE World Congress Experience: Technical Papers
Subtitle of host publication2021 05/04/2022 → 07/04/2022 Detroit, United Kingdom
PublisherSAE International
Publication statusPublished - 2022
EventWCX SAE World Congress Experience 2021 - Detroit, United Kingdom
Duration: 05 Apr 202207 Apr 2022

Publication series

NameWCX SAE World Congress Experience: Technical Papers
ISSN (Print)0148-7191


ConferenceWCX SAE World Congress Experience 2021
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom


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