Development and preliminary validation of the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire for Clinicians

Martin Rabey, Mark Catley, Kevin Vowles, Damien Appleton, Richard Bennett, James McAuley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background and Aims: Higher chronic pain acceptance is associated with lower pain and disability. Clinician beliefs are associated with patients' beliefs. This study therefore aimed to develop the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire for Clinicians (CPAQ-C) to measure clinicians' beliefs regarding the importance of levels of acceptance in patients with chronic pain, and to examine the questionnaire's psychometric properties. Methods: Phase one: the CPAQ-C was adapted from the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire. Data on 162 completed questionnaires were analysed using Rasch analysis. Phase Two: the cohort completed the Healthcare Providers Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale, and the association (Pearson's correlation co-efficient) between these questionnaires examined to assist CPAQ-C validation. Twenty-four participants completed the CPAQ-C one-week later. Test re-test reliability was examined using intraclass correlation co-efficient (2,1) and standard error of measurement. Phase Three: to examine responsiveness 17 clinicians attending a workshop on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy completed the CPAQ-C before and immediately after the workshop, and six-months later. The Skillings Mack test was used to determine whether CPAQ-C scores differed across different timepoints. Results Rasch analysis supported two subscales: activity engagement and pain willingness. Five poorly functioning items were excluded. There was good correlation between the CPAQ-C and Healthcare Providers Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (-.54). The CPAQ-C demonstrated good reliability (ICC (2,1): .81; standard error of measurement: 4.76). There was significant improvement in CPAQ-C scores following the workshop (p=<.001). Conclusions: The CPAQ-C appears a valid, reliable and responsive measure of clinicians' beliefs regarding the importance of levels of acceptance in patients with chronic pain. Implications: Where the CPAQ-C reveals that clinicians have low perceived levels of importance regarding acceptance in patients with chronic pain those clinicians may benefit from specific education, however, this requires further examination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)673–682
Number of pages10
JournalScandinavian journal of pain
Volume20
Issue number4
Early online date24 Jul 2020
DOIs
Publication statusEarly online date - 24 Jul 2020
Externally publishedYes

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