Development of a disease-specific quality-of-life questionnaire for anterior and central skull base pathology--the skull base inventory

John R de Almeida, Allan D Vescan, Patrick J Gullane, Fred Gentili, John M Lee, Lynne Lohfeld, Jolie Ringash, Achilles Thoma, Ian J Witterick

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Anterior and central skull base lesions and their surgical treatment (endoscopic or open approaches) can affect quality of life. A disease-specific instrument is needed to compare quality of life for different surgical approaches.

STUDY DESIGN: Items were generated using a composite strategy consisting of chart review, systematic review of skull base instruments, expert interviews, and qualitative analysis of patient focus groups. A cross-sectional survey study was performed to reduce items based on an item impact score.

METHODS: Charts of 138 patients who underwent skull base surgery were reviewed to identify physical items and domains. Five experts were interviewed for item and domain identification. Thirty-four patients were recruited into eight focus groups based on their surgical approach (open or endoscopic) and tumor location (anterior or central). Items were generated using a composite approach and then reduced into a final questionnaire using item impact scores.

RESULTS: Chart review identified 47 physical items. Systematic review revealed nine relevant instruments with 217 relevant items. Experts identified 11 domains with 69 additional items. Qualitative analysis of focus groups generated 49 items. A total of 382 items were identified and reduced to 77 items after eliminating overlapping and irrelevant items. Further item reduction using item impact scores yielded 41 items.

CONCLUSIONS: The Skull Base Inventory is a disease-specific quality-of-life instrument. Psychometric properties have yet to be tested. It may serve to compare quality of life for endoscopic or open procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1933-42
Number of pages10
JournalThe Laryngoscope
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2012


  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cranial Fossa, Anterior
  • Cranial Fossa, Middle
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Endoscopy
  • Female
  • Focus Groups
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Monitoring, Physiologic
  • Neurosurgical Procedures
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Psychometrics
  • Quality of Life
  • Skull Base
  • Skull Base Neoplasms
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Comparative Study
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review


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