Development of a rapid screening test for veterinary sedatives and the beta-blocker carazolol in porcine kidney by ELISA

Christopher Elliott, J. Cooper, P. Delahaut, T.L. Fodey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


Sedatives and tranquillisers are frequently used to reduce stress during the transportation of food producing animals. The most widely used classes of sedatives include the butyrophenone azaperone, the phenothiazines acepromazine, propionylpromazine, chlorpromazine and the beta-blocker, carazolol. For regulatory control purposes, tolerances for azaperone and carazolol have been set by the European Union as 100 and 25 mug kg(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the use of the phenothiazines is prohibited and therefore has a zero tolerance. A method for the detection of residues of five tranquillisers and one beta-blocker using a single ELISA plate has been developed. Kidney samples (2.5 g) were extracted with dichloromethane and applied to a competitive enzyme immunoassay using three polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits against azaperol, propionylpromazine and carazolol conjugates. In sample matrix, the azaperol antibody cross-reacted 28.0% with azaperone and the propionylpromazine antibody cross-reacted 24.9% with acepromazine and 11.7% with chlorpromazine. In the ELISA, the detection capabilities of the six sedatives, azaperol, azaperone, carazolol, acepromazine, chlorpromazine, and propionylpromazine are 5, 15, 5, 5, 20 and 5 mug kg(-1), respectively. The proposed method is a sensitive and rapid multi-residue technique that offers a cost effective alternative to current published procedures, without any concession on the ability to detect sedative misuse.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-174
Number of pages6
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry


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