Development of a reliable and valid Chinese version of the diabetes empowerment scale

Ann T.Y. Shiu*, Rebecca Y.M. Wong, David, R. Thompson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE - To translate the Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES) into Chinese and establish its psychometric properties among Hong Kong Chinese people. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - A two-stage study design, incorporating qualitative and quantitative components, determined the cultural equivalency and content validity of the translated scale and established the psychometric properties of the Chinese DES (C-DES) in 207 patients. RESULTS - Psychometric analysis supported the reliability and validity of the 20-item Chinese DES (C-DES-20) and five subscales: overcoming barriers (α = 0.89), determining suitable methods (α = 0.79), achieving goals (α = 0.78), obtaining support (α = 0.78), and coping (α = 0.76). The test-retest reliability of the intraclass correlations was satisfactory when a subsample of 20 patients was tested after a 2-week interval. There was criterion validity between the global scale and metabolic control (HbA 1c) of respondents with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS - The C-DES-20 is a reliable and valid outcome measure for patient education and psychosocial intenentions among Hong Kong Chinese people with diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2817-2821
Number of pages5
JournalDiabetes Care
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 01 Oct 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Advanced and Specialised Nursing

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