Development of three-dimensional printing polymer-ceramic scaffolds with enhanced compressive properties and tuneable resorption

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Abstract

In this study, bone tissue engineered scaffolds fabricated via powder-based 3D printing from hydroxyapatite (HA) and calcium sulphate (CaSO4) powders were investigated. The combination of using a fast resorbing CaSO4 based powder and the relatively slower HA powder represents a promising prospect for tuning the bioresorption of 3D printed (3DP) scaffolds. These properties could then be tailored to coincide with tissue growth rate for different surgical procedures. The manufactured scaffolds were infiltrated with poly(ε‑caprolactone) (PCL). The PCL infiltrated the inter-particle spacing within the 3DP structures due to the nature of a loosely-packed powder bed and also covered the surface of ceramic-based scaffolds. Consequently, the average compressive strength, compressive modulus and toughness increased by 314%, 465% and 867%, respectively. The resorption behaviour of the 3DP scaffolds was characterised in vitro using a high-throughput system that mimicked the physiological environment and dynamic flow conditions relevant to the human body. A rapid release of CaSO4 between Day 0 and 28 was commensurate with a reduction in scaffold mass and compressive properties, as well as an increase in medium absorption. In spite of this, HA particles, connected by PCL fibrils, remained within the microstructure after 56 days resorption under dynamic conditions. Consequently, a high level of structural integrity was maintained within the 3DP scaffold. This study presented a porous PCL-HA-CaSO4 3DP structure with the potential to encourage new tissue growth during the initial stages of implantation and also offering sufficient structural and mechanical support during the bone healing phase.

LanguageEnglish
Pages975-986
Number of pages12
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering C
Volume93
Early online date23 Aug 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Dec 2018

Fingerprint

3D printers
Scaffolds
printing
Polymers
Powders
ceramics
Hydroxyapatite
polymers
Durapatite
bones
Bone
Tissue
compressive strength
Tissue Scaffolds
healing
human body
Calcium Sulfate
toughness
integrity
Structural integrity

Keywords

  • 3D printing
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Calcium sulphate
  • Dynamic resorption
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • Poly(ε‑caprolactone)
  • Tissue-engineering bone scaffold

Cite this

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title = "Development of three-dimensional printing polymer-ceramic scaffolds with enhanced compressive properties and tuneable resorption",
abstract = "In this study, bone tissue engineered scaffolds fabricated via powder-based 3D printing from hydroxyapatite (HA) and calcium sulphate (CaSO4) powders were investigated. The combination of using a fast resorbing CaSO4 based powder and the relatively slower HA powder represents a promising prospect for tuning the bioresorption of 3D printed (3DP) scaffolds. These properties could then be tailored to coincide with tissue growth rate for different surgical procedures. The manufactured scaffolds were infiltrated with poly(ε‑caprolactone) (PCL). The PCL infiltrated the inter-particle spacing within the 3DP structures due to the nature of a loosely-packed powder bed and also covered the surface of ceramic-based scaffolds. Consequently, the average compressive strength, compressive modulus and toughness increased by 314{\%}, 465{\%} and 867{\%}, respectively. The resorption behaviour of the 3DP scaffolds was characterised in vitro using a high-throughput system that mimicked the physiological environment and dynamic flow conditions relevant to the human body. A rapid release of CaSO4 between Day 0 and 28 was commensurate with a reduction in scaffold mass and compressive properties, as well as an increase in medium absorption. In spite of this, HA particles, connected by PCL fibrils, remained within the microstructure after 56 days resorption under dynamic conditions. Consequently, a high level of structural integrity was maintained within the 3DP scaffold. This study presented a porous PCL-HA-CaSO4 3DP structure with the potential to encourage new tissue growth during the initial stages of implantation and also offering sufficient structural and mechanical support during the bone healing phase.",
keywords = "3D printing, Additive manufacturing, Calcium sulphate, Dynamic resorption, Hydroxyapatite, Poly(ε‑caprolactone), Tissue-engineering bone scaffold",
author = "Zuoxin Zhou and Eoin Cunningham and Alex Lennon and Helen McCarthy and Fraser Buchanan and Nicholas Dunne",
year = "2018",
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AU - Zhou, Zuoxin

AU - Cunningham, Eoin

AU - Lennon, Alex

AU - McCarthy, Helen

AU - Buchanan, Fraser

AU - Dunne, Nicholas

PY - 2018/12/1

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N2 - In this study, bone tissue engineered scaffolds fabricated via powder-based 3D printing from hydroxyapatite (HA) and calcium sulphate (CaSO4) powders were investigated. The combination of using a fast resorbing CaSO4 based powder and the relatively slower HA powder represents a promising prospect for tuning the bioresorption of 3D printed (3DP) scaffolds. These properties could then be tailored to coincide with tissue growth rate for different surgical procedures. The manufactured scaffolds were infiltrated with poly(ε‑caprolactone) (PCL). The PCL infiltrated the inter-particle spacing within the 3DP structures due to the nature of a loosely-packed powder bed and also covered the surface of ceramic-based scaffolds. Consequently, the average compressive strength, compressive modulus and toughness increased by 314%, 465% and 867%, respectively. The resorption behaviour of the 3DP scaffolds was characterised in vitro using a high-throughput system that mimicked the physiological environment and dynamic flow conditions relevant to the human body. A rapid release of CaSO4 between Day 0 and 28 was commensurate with a reduction in scaffold mass and compressive properties, as well as an increase in medium absorption. In spite of this, HA particles, connected by PCL fibrils, remained within the microstructure after 56 days resorption under dynamic conditions. Consequently, a high level of structural integrity was maintained within the 3DP scaffold. This study presented a porous PCL-HA-CaSO4 3DP structure with the potential to encourage new tissue growth during the initial stages of implantation and also offering sufficient structural and mechanical support during the bone healing phase.

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KW - Additive manufacturing

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KW - Dynamic resorption

KW - Hydroxyapatite

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