The role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in entry of Salmonella Typhimurium into epithelial cells remains unclear. In this study, we tested the ability of a series of mutants with deletions in genes for the synthesis and assembly of the O antigen and the outer core of LPS to adhere to and invade HeLa, BHK, and IB3 epithelial cells lines. Mutants devoid of O antigen, or that synthesized only one O antigen unit, or with altered O antigen chain lengths were as able as the wild type to enter epithelial cells, indicating that this polysaccharide is not required for invasion of epithelial cells in vitro. In contrast, the LPS core plays a role in the interaction of S. Typhimurium with epithelial cells. The minimal core structure required for adherence and invasion comprised the inner core and residues Glc I Gal I of the outer core. A mutant of S. Typhimurium that produced a truncated LPS core lacking the terminal galactose residue had a significant lower level of adherence to and ingestion by the three epithelial cell lines than did strains with this characteristic. Complementation of the LPS production defect recovered invasion to parental levels. Heat-killed bacteria with a core composed of Glc 1 Gal I. but not bacteria with a core composed of Glc 1, inhibited uptake of the wild type by HeLa cells. A comparison of the chemical structure of the S. Typhi core with the published chemical structure of that of S. Typhimurium indicated that the Glc I Gal 1 Glc 11 backbone is conserved in both serovars. However, S. Typhi requires a terminal glucose for maximal invasion. Therefore, our data indicate that critical saccharide residues of the outer core play different roles in the early interactions of serovars Typhi and Typhimurium with epithelial cells. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases