Difficult Labor: Troublesome Company at the New Birth of Freedom

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Extended contribution to a roundtable on Mark A. Lause's Free Labor: The Civil War and the Making of an American Working Class, emphasizing the wartime labor movement's great difficulty in responding to rapid industrialization brought on by the war, and to the increasing diversity of the labor force brought about by mass immigration.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)474-478
Number of pages5
JournalWorking USA: The Journal of Labor and Society
Publication statusPublished - 05 Dec 2016


  • American Civil War
  • Free Labor
  • US Immigration
  • African Americans
  • race
  • US Labor History


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